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Laboratory Project 4: Redesign of a Cam-Follower System


This laboratory project seeks to lay down process and procedures of redesigning of a cam-follower system in machines. The primary objective of this project is to reduce the noise produced by machines, by redesigning the cam- follower system to meet the set goals. In the transformation that takes place on the simplest motion such as that in rotation into other motions, the cam mechanism is used to conveniently accomplish the process hence smooth transfer of energy in a machine system. As an objective to solve the problem regarding wear and noise in machines as much as possible, a computer software known as MSC ADAMS 2013 is used to help in redesigning of cam-follower.

The methodology of accomplishing complete redesign of the cam-flower systems, Appendix A in the lab manual will be used as the step by step procedures are followed. The procedures followed brings to the attention that circular diameter is considered with reduced circular diameter at the base is required. Rollers are used as well as changing of flower offset in the process. At the end of this laboratory project, the existing cam-follower system will be redesigned procedurally, and the new system will be adopted, that with the reduced noise and wear on a pint of motions within the machine.

Keywords: Cam, Followers, reducing wear and noise


The sound produced by the cam-follower system in machines as they operate on a daily basis has become a constant worry because in the process, wear in various parts of the machine also takes place. Cam, as defined, is a machine element with some curved grooves, hence upon rotation, produces a predefined motion to the follower. In its operation, it functions to transmit the energy to the follower element in machines such as shoe machinery, printing press, screw machines and textile machinery among other machines.  In classification of cam mechanism, the project classifies cam regarding modes of output, configuration and arrangement and finally shape of the cam

According to the shape of cams, disk, translation and cylindrical cams are considered in the project. In disk cam, the follower moves along a perpendicular axis of oscillation of the camshaft. A swing arm is maintained in contact with the cam profile by being constrained in the process. On the other hand, cylindrical calm is designed whereby the groove cut on the periphery of the cylinder works in connection with the roller followers. To create the required cam-follower that will meet the goal of reduction in wear and noise, a lift of 20mm in a period of 90o of cam oscillation as well as dwell for 120o is put in place. In addition, a return of a period of 150o.

To adequately meet the required of a new cam-follower system, the parameter to include in the design is a fine cut of the disc as a form of fabrication as this will reduce the wear on the system during oscillation. Further, uniform motion, parabolic motion and modified parabolic is considered to come up with the right design. In conclusion, upon completion, a displacement diagram, which is a graph drawn to show the movement within the follower against function of time or angle of rotation, is plotted.

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Rafael Code and Standards Case Study

In any organization, cases of employer firing employees are common. Various employers react differently to mistakes that may warrant an employee to be fired from the workplaces. On the other hand, a fired employee may react differently upon firing by the employer. Nursing field is not exempted in firing or dismissing of the employees. In this article, is a case were by the employer terminates the contract of an employee because the employee does not comply with the corrective action on ways to document patients chart. More elaborately this essay will determine whether the employee has the right to defend herself and if or not the employer could offer the employee more training.

Does the employee have the right to fight the termination of employment based on due process?

The employee had the right to fight the termination of employment if there was a written contract (Deakin & Morris, 2012). In a written contract terms of employment, the employee has to be served with a termination letter prior to the termination of the contract. In Labour law, the employee is entitled to notice of termination. This will be in effect if the period of employment to the time of termination, was at least three months. In this case, at hand, it is not clear whether a termination letter was served to the employee. In case, the later was not served and it was a written contract, and then the employee can sue the employer for firing her without prior information.

If the employee had some disability that stopped her from understanding the process of documenting the patient chart, then it was illegal for the employer to terminate her contract (Barron, 1975). In legal terms, this could be a case filed under discrimination against the employee by the employer. In this case, the employers are not to capitalize on an employee’s disability hence the employees can file a case against the employers, in case the termination was based on discrimination. In case, the employee could not follow the process very well due to her laziness and absenteeism, and then the employer had the right to terminate her contract to save the business from incurring losses.

Does the employer have to offer even more training for the employee?

The employer could offer more training to the employee and in the process revise the method of training (schbach & Stoeberl, 2001). Maybe the method offered during the training was not appropriate for the employee to cope with; this could have prevented her from not understanding the process adequately. The employer could go ahead to ask a different person to train her in the procedure of documentation of the patient’s chart. In employee training, there are various methods that could be employed to ensure maximum transfer of knowledge, for example on work training (Barron, 1975). In case, all the relevant methods of training were exhausted then the employer had the right to termination of the employee’s contract.

What could the employer or the employee do differently in this case?

To the employee, she was to become serious with training on documentation patients charts. By showing interest to learn, she could have asked the employer one more chance to capitalize and train by giving her best.

To the employer, if the method offered to train the employee were rigid and obsolete, then a change was to be made on the methods of training.

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Organizational Change

Case 1.

In this instance the organization is operating in an economically stressed period and hence the consumer purchasing power is way below the expected levels. The management however faces even a greater dilemma that the issues or recession.  Due to failure in the planning and decision making process; the entity finds itself in an awkward position because their organizational culture has depicted the organization as a racist entity whose merchandise is designed to attract a certain part of the consumer populace. The management therefore is engulfed in a dilemma of restoring the corporate faith in the consumers who do not necessarily associate with its overall promotion and recruiting culture and as well as implement an economic approach that helps the entity survive the hard economic recession period. The process of changing the fortunes of A&F therefore requires an exclusive overhaul in managerial strategies and restructuring of both the company policies as well as reorganizing the groups and teams working in the entity to represent every part of the society.

Case 2.

The New York Times Company is an entity that is positively growing and increasing its coverage /expansion of business territory comes with increased opportunities, risks and hence the prudent managers will seek to proactively plan for the future of such an entity. Change in the news world is inevitable. The company has to operate at par with the changes in the market trends such as technological changes.  However, it is very important to develop a pilot scheme to aid in determining the possible outcome of rolling out new operation culture. Since the organization is recording tremendous growth and increased subscription from all parts of the globe, there is need to focus more of quality, affordability and reliability in services delivery across the globe. This means that the organization must invest heavily in improving its infrastructure and basically marrying the best skill with the best technology in the market.


The effects of pure shear on steel specimen and uniaxial tension loading on a steel specimen.


Steel when subjected to various loading condition will always respond depending on the nature and intensity of loading condition (Lynch, Christopher, 1996). Similarly, shear of various magnitudes may cause steel to twist extend and even undergo complete failure. In definition, pure shear is the condition of shear stress in the absence of applied normal stresses while tensile force is that which acts along a defined line. To obtain the mechanical characteristics of materials such as steel a uniaxial tensile testing is carried out. In this experiment on the tension test and yielding, the main objective is to determine the effects of pure shear on steel specimen and uniaxial tension loading on a steel specimen.


To perform the experiment, a round bar was of importance since under tension it experiences pure shear (Dowling & Norman, 1993). In the determination of the relationship between the shear strains to shear stress, testing of materials under torsion is initiated. Under elastic range on the bar, the shear stress is to be increased linearly through the radius. As the stress increases, the surface of the bar yields a condition known as the plastic state. Further increase of the stress will automatically undergo fractures after passing through the plastic state through an entire cross section of the bar. Analytically, the strength of the torque and the stress can be determined too.

Scope of the study

To accomplish the experiment, the apparatus in use was a steel bar upon which the failure would be observed, a meter rule to determine the radius of the bar (Heyd, & Charlier, 1997). To determine the tensional load applied, there was the use of the tensional machine. To establish the angle of twists on the bar, there was the use of protectors. With all the various measurement established, the torque at plastic was calculated with a lot of ease.

Finally in this experiment there was no assumption made in all the procedure of determining behaviors of steel when exposed to various degrees of stress


IT Management

On the topic role of information, system in organizations and introduction to software focuses on the value of information will depend on, who uses the information, the purpose of information, availability of information. Some of the characteristic of information is the timelessness, brevity, appropriateness, action, accuracy, pentation and undesirability of information.

In retrieving and using information elements also involves the information needed, search query, relevance of retrieved information, effectiveness of query, operational and tactical use. In addition, audit trails on information include maintenance, archive and distraction.

Information architecture and management is importance sine it helps in the information security.

On information management, the role of information is significant as it examines the resources, activities and application. Major types of information systems include executive support, design-making, computer system, knowledge work, office automation and transaction processing system.

Report level of management includes strategic, tactical, operational and planning control management. Further, enterprise system also focuses on sales, marketing, human resources, financing, accounting, manufacturing, and production.

In information management, enterprise application and system involves manufacturing, research, development, vendors and customer also play a role. It is also of benefits to the business, technology, management and firm stricture. One challenge is the difficulty in building the system


Importance of Public Space

A public space means an open space like the parks, recreational areas, streets, plazas and other publicly owned outdoor spaces. In sociology, public space can be defined as an accessible place to anyone and reflects a notion of basic social freedom and equality in circulation and anonymity by the individual (Grazian, 2004). There are places that allow people move with freedom and meet others as they go through their daily activities without any hindrance. This essay will seek to establish the importance of these public spaces.

Public spaces create an environment for social learning as they encourage people to behave civilly towards diversity (Miles & M, 1997). As individuals go about their activities in the public, they tend to meet people of diverse background. They will tend to emulate the good dressing codes of the people they meet as well as be presentable to them. This is a learning environment regarding New York City; pedestrians often are exposed to an advertisement that may be pointing out certain mistakes made in public places. Therefore, they will get learn to change the demands of the instruction given.

Public spaces encourage social diversity; this is evident in most public spaces as people of different backgrounds and environments meet on the streets (Grazian, 2004). In the streets, they may exchange greetings, and this will enhance togetherness in a country of diverse ethnic groups such as the United States. The streets as one of the public places help us find our way at the same time meeting people with different economic, religious, social and cultural needs hence public places enhances social diversity.

Public places such as train stations facilitates movement of people to aces various areas. To access far geographical locations, people without personal means of transport will seek the service of such public places like the bus and train stations to facilitate their movement. These services will bring people of diverse ethnicity together hence building a solid social cohesion in a country and nations.

In addition, public places enhance democracy as seen in Palace de la Republique in Paris France (Gieryn &T. F, 2000).  These public places are accessible by large groups of people who gather to share ideas including avocation of amendment of certain obsolete laws in a country. Therefore, people use such public places to fight for democracy in their localities. Political rallies can be addressed in such public places because the spatial advantage can accommodate large crowds hence makes

Public places such as parks and stadiums promote social and cultural exchange for the general good of the public (Gieryn &T. F, 2000). As people from different cultural backgrounds meet to show their talents, others will also get to share and learn the talents hence this will lead to an appreciation of diverse cultures in our nation. In addition, these parks encourage a people to appreciate their environment as it become centers of attraction for local and international tourism.

In conclusion, these public places play a central position in the lives of people of a nation or community. Togetherness and unity of a people of a nation will be enhanced in these public places ae different people come and meet to exchange ideas in streets, parks and schools hence a learning environment. Further, the public places points encourage a people to stay in peace as they appreciate their environments and ethnic diversity.

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Involvement in the arts and human development

As a child, my parents helped me develop an interest in drawing creating simple shapes such as circles, triangles among others and attaching a color to them. My creativity in choice of colors to match the reality of our environment, for example, in my drawings, I used to attach blue colure to the sky and green the many plant paintings I developed. With continuous practices, I improved my imagination since my paintings presented the reality in my environments such as churches, schools and the marketplace I accompanied my parents. Molding is another activity I enjoyed in my childhood, and my special model was that of Volkswagen car of which I also intend to purchase as my first car when the right time come.

As a child we could sit around the fire place as my father narrates stories for the family, I use to enjoy them. The most interesting story my father told was that story of Leonardo da Vinci the Italian Polymath. To imitate Leonardo, the father could stuff pieces of clothing around this chin to mimic the long beards Da Vinci had. To this present day, Leonardo has become a mentor since his portraits and painting shaped the world and my imagination. This got me into reading story books not knowing that this was improving my language and decisions making process. It developed in me great critical thinking techniques, which earned me respect among my peers. My childhood experiences has shaped my characters to my present days because through the story telling, I developed courage and mastering of language that is of importance to my career as I can educate the mass with my Arts.

My repeated visiting to the museums encouraged in me visual learning since the portrait, sculpts of various individuals and animals, and everything in the museum, help me develop visual-spatial skills, which has become so important in my environment. The museum too instilled in me the cultural awareness because we live in a diverse society; we need to appreciate cultures of different societies. The lack of exposure in some of my friends has hindered their creativity in life. Some of them can’t express themselves in proper due to shyness ad lack of self-confidence. I have therefore come to understand that creativity is that ability to think critically and actualize the thought by performing a task or solving a problem just like the musicians, innovators and artists do.

Second part

What is art and why does it matter?

In definition, Art describes the diverse human activities and the products of such activities that involve technical skills or imaginative skills. These activities portray the production of works of art, the study of the history of art, the criticism of art and dissemination of art. Pat of the visual art it entails the creation of objects and images that includes paintings, photography, sculptures, and visual media. Music, films, theater and other performing art are also classified as art since they are works and innovations of imagination and creative thinking in the environment.

Art is of great importance to our lives as human beings because, through films, literature, and visual arts transports us to various places and exposes us to different cultures. This will allow us to see other communities and our own at the different cultural lens. Films to wherever and wherever they are performed enable to reflect and connect with our personal and family life hence their educative nature in our environment. They, therefore, help us make sense of our environment and broaden our experience and imagination whenever we listen or view pieces of art in the environment.

What is an artist?

An artist is any person who engages in any border spectrum of activities that involves practicing, creating and demonstrating art. The word artist is used in the academic and everyday speech, but more so used in entertainment business contexts, such as actors and musicians performance. In English, an artist can be a writer of novels, books articles among other.

What is the role of art?

Art functions to educate people; this happens when we view pieces of art such as paintings, films and sculpture that communicate certain information to us. They will tell the history of civilization of a nation and the entire world. Taking, for example, the great painting of Eduardo da Vinci, some of them, put in the national museums, they tell of personal life and collective experience of human spiritual, cultural and social life. Art is also a form of entertainment in our lives, taking an example of the great artist of times such as Michael Jackson, they entertain audience hence help relieve life pressures we may adopt in our daily lives.

Another role of art is that of the commercial importance of the artists through the art, they entertain the mass and hence earn revenues of various forms. Taking live concerts, for example, that entertain as the artists receive payment from the audience hence source of livelihood the artists. The finances received by the artists can be diverted to various usage including playmates for medical bills, electricity bills among others hence improving their living standards. In conclusion, art plays a significant role in our lives as human beings that range from improving academic performance, creation of cultural awareness, language development to inviting innovative skills.


The 40 chances: finding hope in a hungry by Warren E. Buffett

The 40 chances: finding hope in a hungry world is a book written by Warren E. Buffett a philanthropist who has a passion for farming and conservation of wildlife. This book gives courage to the less fortunate persons in the world that there is hope in whatever they do. Warren, therefore, includes in his book how not fight hunger and the development approaches, that is both the long term and the short term. This essay, therefore, summarizes the various approaches to find hope in the hungry world.

He takes on the poverty condition in the world by giving an example of the United States of America those 1 in 6 persons are considered food insecure meaning that they operate below the poverty line. In his reasons as to why these poor people cannot get a long term, help from their living condition is because of the poor approaches by the government. Giving reference to the NGOs that reach out to the poor farmers and give the fertilizers and seeds after which they leave. This means that after the farmers shall have run out of the farm inputs they will get back to their poverty status.

He disqualifies the intention of the government helping impoverished farmers to join large economy. This does not help the farmers due to the double increase of the world’s population meaning there won’t be enough farmland to cultivate. As a solution to the above condition, he encourages the governments and various organization to help subsistence farmers to produce a surplus for everyone

As part of a long-term approach to the poor farmer is the No –till farming approach. That is tilling the soil with an aim of the planting of cover crops that are nitrogen fixing. The approach, therefore, leads to increased reduction of the need for chemical fertilizer used, soil conservation and more water retention in the soil for plant usage.

In conclusion, Warren in his book encourages the poor people to take advantage of their current situation and optimize the available resources and those received from various grants to turn their lives around. In addition, it is this that his foundation reaches out to poor people giving them food and words of encouragement hence finding hope in a hungry world.


Corrosion of steel in concrete: prevention, diagnosis, repair

The incorporation of steel fibers into concrete reduces the structural failure of the reinforced concrete, therefore, increases the ability of the reinforced concrete to stretch to a higher degree under tensile stresses. The reduced structural failure and increased ability to stretch under tensile stresses comes from the point at which maximum stress occur before localization failure and the softening of the response. Use of fiber in reinforcing concrete also increases the hardness of the surface of the concrete from material loss due to abrading forces that are caused by frequent movement of the wheel loads. This, therefore, enhances the safety and service life of concrete pavements. Similarly, use of fiber to reinforce concrete will reduce the permeability and the movement of waters within the concrete; this will protect the concrete from the ill effects of moisture. Finally, incorporation of steel into concrete costs effective in the long run due to low labor requirement.

Mechanisms of energy absorption include the rupture and pullout. When the load is applied on a reinforced concrete, there is a measure and capacity to which the concrete material will resist failure. Energy therefore is transferred through the beam, and excess energy may lead to complete failure that is a rapture or just to a lighter extent that is pulled out.

The sources of error in the laboratory experiment may result from the application of the four point load system. That is the diameters, and the sizes of the loads may not uniform an extra weight, therefore, may be registered. The specimen may also shift position during the application of the loading thereby generation of possible errors during laboratory tests. The heat generation between the specimens may also lead to errors during the test. To curb all the possible errors, net, and gross measurement scales are used during the experiment.

In taking a measurement on a deflection, net deflection, and gross deflection are considered in their various difference when it comes to a twist. Net deflection measurement does not account for other settling mechanisms in the experiment being undertaking, on the other hand, gross measurements of settling mechanism on the structure will account for factors that lead to the settling of the specimen into position during the experiment. To measure large twist on a structure, gross measurement will be efficient and excellent than net measurement since neat measurement will not include more details.

Observation on the result of the experiment posts various benefits in the practical application of fiber reinforces concrete.  Reinforced concrete used on building and other structural members enhances resistance to shattering forces that could be caused by earthquake loads and various vibrations from machines on the foundation of the structure. This means that the reinforced concrete will be versatile material for the various application. In application, fiber reduces plastic shrinkage and settlement cracking at the time when the concrete is still green; this will enhance the overall life of the structure thereby reducing maintenance cost in watery environments.


This experiment conducted looked into the flexural response of reinforced concrete with poly fibers, reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete with steel fibers. Observation of presented from the failure on these three types of concrete states that steel reinforced concrete workability is higher than the others. Poly fibers reinforced concrete may fail at some time due to increased loading unlike steel reinforced concrete with Withstands extra load. The general benefits of using fiber reinforced concerts in structure are the improved workability

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The slave trade and the origins of international human rights law

Chapter three

An ambivalent Foe” explains and elaborates on the shapes taken by the United States of America in fighting slave trade. By 1822, the United States had passed laws prohibiting the slave trade hence declaring it piracy. Participating in the slave trade was punishable by death to those who breach the law. The challenge they faced that the America Navy, however, solely enforced these laws prohibiting slave trade only very few American Navy ships were after slaves across its waters,

Of equal importance is that in 1807, Britain regarding slave trade, become the first county to adopt laws prohibiting slave trade since it was a violation of human right. The United States soon followed British to put to ban the slave trade hence it was illegal for any American citizen to involve in the slave trade. One the great American scholar of 1714-1767 on matters relating to slave trade said that slave trade was a total disgrace to humanity. After the slave trade ban in America taking effect by 1808, the United States embarked on surprising slave trade within and around its boundaries.

Notable was the difference that occurred between the North and Southern America on matters regarding involvement in the slave trade, but unluckily the United States government stayed put on the ban against the United States-flagged ship within his high sea level. At the onset of the bans, the United States was always neutral in the war against slave trade at that time but their ships were always checked about a low of nations making sure that no nation violated the treaty.

Chapter four

This chapter on the Courts of Mixed Commission for the Abolition of the slave trade” expresses the nature of courts and tribunals established in ancient times to help curb slave trade. The international tribunal was therefore referred to as mixed commissions since they had judges from different countries. They, therefore, sat on a permanent basis to help solve slave trade issues with their primary aim as to promote humanitarian objectives. In the same year of 1822, the international mixed commission handled so many cases including the case of Icanam and Vecua. The commission had little to decide whether the ship had breached the treaties between Spain and England.

In addition, by 1840s, more than 20 nations had signed treaties prohibiting participation in the slave trade; this, therefore, meant that in a time of breaching the treaters, one was liable to punishment according to the international mixed commission, who judges come from these countries. The international mixed commission had proved efficient in solving disputes that arose any nations and individuals breaching the treaties such as those that prohibit slave trade. Letter on when changes were taking effect, the mixed court system was replicated by military courts. This was aimed at effectiveness in handling various cases. One major weakness of the mixed international courts was that the slave who was the victims were not given time to give their testimonies.

To curb such occurrence, the mixed international courts changed to international criminal courts, and more changes are taking place. This has come to effect when international human rights become of concern hence need to punish crimes against humanity such as murder, tourism acts.

Chapter five

Am I not a man and a brother are a question directed to the courts of law at a time when the international courts were granting men, women and children freedom? On record was that of 120 serious Cases existed in the international courts sixty years after it was set. Interestingly was the fact that the slaves were not fighting for their rights and rarely did they testify in court sessions. Hence, they were only beneficiary and bystanders from the court proceeding on violation of human rights. Upon release by the mixed tribunals in Sierra Leon, some of the slaves worked as court clerks as some of them after receiving the benefits did not care to precipitate in other activities making the more vulnerable to recapture by slave merchants.

The same case was also in Brazil and Cuba were slaves were set free by the mixed courts. However, some private individuals recaptured them end enslaved them one more time. The recaptured slaves sought the help of the British, who rescued them from such evil individuals. This process did not miss challenges because David Turnbull who was the British reported at Havana was interested in slave trade hence did not promote freedom of the slaves. Turnbull also suggested in a setting that since it was easy to distinguish the African and America slaves by the languages they spoke, the courts of the mixed Commission could, be given the power to order freedom to slaves.

Similarly, Turnbull was appointed by Palmerston to be the British consul to Havana to which he had much wanted to, and together with the Anti-Slavery Society, he lobbied for Palmerston to adopt a policy that prohibited the British officials from getting involved in slave trade affairs. Kennedy, who was a British commissioner on the slave trade, due to actions of Turnbull, felt that it was interference with their respective roles. The Spanish government asked the British government to sack Turnbull due to his frequent drama in Havana. This chapter concludes with the handling of a case whereby sea vessel by the name HMS Grasshopper sailed into port Havana carrying so many saved. Since it was a violation of the treaty on anti-slavery, the mixed court commission had to pass judgment.

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